I would like to run the CDC implementation without impacting the main server as much as possible. I know that it async accesses the transaction log (which is great), but can you also move that process to a different server making it completely independant?
That process can't be separated onto a different server by design in the current production. However, if have to do that, you could try to write your own SQL to do the CDC implementation. If you want to request this feature in the next version of SQL Server,
submit it to the Microsoft Connect at this link