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hardware reserved ram RRS feed

  • Question

  • my installed ram is 8 gb but the usable is 3.7 gb only 

    what should i do to make 8 gb usable ???

    Monday, September 4, 2017 2:46 AM

All replies

  • On what platform? What OS?

    If it is a 32-bit CPU or OS, then that's the best you're likely to see. If it is a 64-bit CPU and a 64-bit OS, then either the BIOS isn't setting up memory properly, or the OS isn't allowing access to more than 4GB. Again, I need to know the platform and OS to be more precise

     -Brian


    Azius Developer Training www.azius.com Windows device driver, internals, security, & forensics training and consulting. Blog at www.azius.com/blog

    Monday, September 4, 2017 6:15 AM
    Moderator
  • our WES7-Image (x86/32bit) is used for a couple of different hardware platforms, on of them is based on Intel's 6th generation CPUs (a.k.a. Skylake).

    We noticed that about 1800MB of RAM are reserved for hardware on the Skylake system (as per Resource Monitor), this is almost three times more than older system (f.ex. Intel's 3rd gen., a.k.a. IvyBridge), where about 700MB are reserved for hardware. We can reduce this by changing the BIOS setting "TOLUD" to another value than dynamic, f.ex. to 3.5GB - the rsult is that about 700MB of RAM becomes available. Better than the initial situation, but still much more than on older systems.

    After some analysis I found out that most of the resources are assigned to a device called "PCI Bus", where it's address range covers the address ranges of several PCI devices (SATA controller, Ethernet controllers,...). If I set the BIOS settings to dynamic, about 1.28GiB are assigned to "PCI Bus", and about 512MiB if I set it to "3.5G" (which is the highest possible setting). However, when I add up all memory ranges that falls within the range of "PCI Bus", I count about 235MiB which are designed to these devices (well the most of this is assigned to the built-in graphics controller). With other words: regardless of the setting - at least 250MiB are still avialable for any hardware - IMO, that is much enough for an embedded system since customer has no abilitiese to add additional PCI(e) hardware.

    On the other hand: When I installed Win10 IoT (64bit) to the same hardware, only a view MBs of memory are assigned to hardware... In summary: It seems that it depends on O/S as well as on HW how many RAM is reserved for hardware??

    Can anybody explain why the same O/S reserves different amount of RAM when it runs on different HW, or why differnt O/S reserve different amount of RAM on the same HW? Does anybody know some background about who decides how many RAM should be reserved for HW, and why?

    At least following question remains: Do you think it's critical to set the BIOS setting "TOLUD" to 3.5G by meanings of having about 250MiB of RAM left for hardware? As mentoined above, the only devices that custumers may add must be attached to one of the four USB ports.

    Have much thanks in before.

    Willi K.

    Tuesday, October 30, 2018 4:00 PM